This site is by an amateur caver. The information is well researched. I took all the photos.

Cave Formations

Almost all cave formations are made of calcite, the crystal of calcium carbonate. Different minerals and different movements in the water account for an incredible variety of cave formations...

What makes the formations?

How to find a cave

You may have walked over caves hundreds of times, completely unaware of the marvelous realm that lays inside the earth so nearby!

How to find a cave >

What lives in caves?

There are actually a lot of things that live in caves. Some spend their entire life underground, in the dark. They are often white, completely lacking any pigment, and blind...

Bats and other animals that live in caves >

How Caves are Made

Caves are carved by water.
But, water alone could never make the incredible formations found in caves.

Caves are formed by natural processes that, over millions of years, have sculpted cavities extending sometimes miles into the earth.

More about how caves form >

Tunnels nearly too narrow to squeeze through may reach passages that are so wide you cannot even see from one side to the other. Shafts may reach up to let daylight in when you feel like you’re miles underground. The floor may drop away at your feet in the darkness.

By studying rock formations in caves, scientists have found clues to geologic events that occurred millions of years ago.

But, as much as caves have given to science, they remain chiefly the domain of amateur explorers. Every year, thousands of cavers explore underground, seeking passages and chambers such as these.

“Imagine a world of near total silence, absolutely without light, of constant temperature and usually without much motion of air or water. That apparent isolation is the cave world to which many living organisms have adapted and by that adaptation have come to depend upon such darkness and quietude. Add to this the exquisite, inanimate, fragile stalactites, stalagmites – even deposits of mud – that have taken centuries to form. We explorers with our lights and noise and fumes and heavy feet are alien intruders. Happily, we can enjoy our visit in little time and then leave the cave world to its own slow, dark tempo – if we are careful. The dilemma of cave exploration is to enjoy our visits to what seems ‘another world,’ and to leave that world unaltered, unspoiled, for all time.”
Rane L. Curl
President National Speleological Society, Ann Arbor
February 1973

I hope you enjoy this site.
Carla Kirby

Save